Learn  Ka Class Consonants   _       -    Featured

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Sinhalese " Ka" Class Consonants = ""   

"Sinhalese Primer   " on-line by Professor Sisira Ranasinghe M.D., F.A.C.P., F.A.S.C.P   


LESSON TWENTY

Sinhalese Consonants  Ka class [8]         -   

Learn how to write and pronounce all the Sinhalese  "Ka" class Consonants represented in this figure by visiting each of the lessons as listed below.

K class all



The consonant signs of the "Ka" class can be classified into three groups, based on the vocalization. i.e. unaspirated, aspirated and nasal:

1. Unaspirated consonants [two]  

 named "Alpapraana Kayanna" is pronounced "ka".

 named "Alpapraana Gayanna" is pronounced "ga".

K classUnaspirated



2. Aspirated consonants [three]   

 named "Keti Alpapraana Kayanna"is pronounced "kk'".

The left half of letter  written as  can be combined with a limited number of other consonants to produce ligated letter complexes. This semi-letter form produces the same vocal effect as adding "alkireema"[aspirate symbol] to "ka" <> "kk'" sound. e.g. ,  which are valid ligations.

 named "Mahaapraana Kayanna" is pronounced "kha". Please observe the bottom center of this letter. There is a sharp hook, which is not present in a similar appearing letter, "Ba", the "" Alpapraana Bayanna.

 named "Mahaapraana Gayanna" is pronounced "gha".

K classAspirated



3. Nasal consonants [three]   

 named "Kanthaja Naasikyaya" is pronounced "ng".

 named "Sangnghaka Gayanna" is pronounced "nga".

 named "Sangnghaka Naasikyaya" is pronounced "nga".

K classNasal







The above are the "Ka" class symbols and can occupy any position within a word except for the last two letters, which cannot occur in the initial position of a word.

Note: All of the above symbols are present in the SLIIC encoding standard.

See the pronunciation instructions under the individual letter name.


Sinhalese Consonant  Alpapraana Kayanna  

"Sinhalese Primer   " on-line by Professor Sisira Ranasinghe M.D., F.A.C.P., F.A.S.C.P   


LESSON TWENTY ONE

 Alpapraana Kayanna  

Alpapraana Kayanna  is the first Sinhalese consonant.

When no vowel is written with it, like all the consonants, "Alpapraana Kayanna " is vocalized by means of the first vowel , which though unwritten is pronounced after it, as "ka". It has the short sound of English "C" represented as in "cut", "come" and "cup".



How to write this letter:

Practice writing this letter by following the graphic sequence shown below, beginning from the left and finishing the final character form which is illustrated at the right end. The thin red line with arrow tip shows the writing direction and progressive steps to construct the symbol.

With a pen or pencil draw a dark oval at the level of the 'horizontal height' rule, and stroke the pen from the top towards the right to make a small tight arc to look like a large "comma". From the bottom of the "hook', next start a new stroke in a clockwise direction and make a reversed "C" towards the 'baseline' rule. The bottom of this semi-circle should sit on the 'baseline'. Continue to stroke the pen from the bottom end of the semi-circle gradually to the left and upwards, stopping midway between the 'horizontal height' and 'baseline' rules.

Then reverse the direction and make an arc downwards to the left to meet 'baseline' rule. Continue the stroke gradually curving upwards to the left ending in a small sharp hook extending downto the 'baseline'. From this point, draw an arc upto the 'horizontal height' rule and curve it downwards to the 'baseline'. Finish this stroke by curving towards the left, and ending just above the 'baseline'.

This is the first consonant letter of the Sinhalese alphabet and is a horizontal one as it lies between the 'horizontal height' and 'baseline' rules " Kayanna".

GUIDELINES:

Within the yellow rectangle there are three horizontal guide lines, the topmost is the level for UPRIGHT (Vertically oriented) letters. The lowermost rule is the BASELINE. Every character should sit on this rule. So, the middle rule is the height guide for the HORIZONTAL (Low profile) letters. Most letters of the Sinhalese alphabet lie between the baseline and intermediate rule.







 

 

 

IMPORTANT LINGUISTIC FEATURES (GRAMMAR RULES):

1. Alparaana Kayanna  can occur anywhere in a word.


SINHALESE WORDS <> DIGITALLY GENERATED ENGLISH TRANSLITERATION = ENGLISH MEANINGS

 <> Kata = Mouth



 <> Kana = Ear



 <> Kadha = Pingo



 <> Kakula = Leg



 <> Karath'thaya = Cart



 <> Kamisaya = Shirt eagle-shirt



 <> Waka = Bent/Crooked crookedliana



 <> Lakaya = Mark tatoo



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This web-based lesson is Copyright 2015 property of it's author Dr. Sisira Ranasinghe, SRILIA.COM and the affiliate websites.

Sinhalese Consonant  Keti Alpapraana Kayanna   

"Sinhalese Primer   " on-line by Professor Sisira Ranasinghe M.D., F.A.C.P., F.A.S.C.P   


LESSON TWENTY TWO

 Keti Alpapraana Kayanna   

Keti Alpapraana Kayanna  is the modification of the first Sinhalese consonant. The left half of letter  written as  is often combined with a limited number of consonants to produce ligated letter complexes. This semi-letter form produces the same effect as adding "alkireema"[aspirate symbol] to "ka" to produce the aspirated form with a "kk'" sound. e.g.  [k'kwa];  [k'ksha].



How to write this letter:

Practice writing this letter by following the graphic sequence shown below, beginning from the left and finishing the final character form which is illustrated at the right end. The thin red line with arrow tip shows the writing direction and progressive steps to construct the symbol.

With a pen or pencil draw a dark oval at the level of the 'horizontal height' rule, and stroke the pen from the top towards the right to make a small tight arc to look like a large "comma". From the bottom of the "hook', next start a new stroke in a clockwise direction and make a reversed "C" towards the 'baseline' rule. The bottom of this semi-circle should sit on the 'baseline'. Continue to stroke the pen from the bottom end of the semi-circle gradually to the left and upwards, stopping midway between the 'horizontal height' and 'baseline' rules.

Then reverse the direction and make an arc downwards to the left to meet 'baseline' rule. Continue the stroke gradually curving upwards to the left ending in a small sharp hook extending downto the 'baseline'. From this point, draw an arc upto the 'horizontal height' rule and slightly curve it downwards ending just below the 'horizontal height' rule.

This is the first partial consonant letter of the Sinhalese alphabet and is a horizontal one as it lies between the 'horizontal height' and 'baseline' rules.

Well done you made the " Keti-Kayanna".

GUIDELINES:

Within the yellow rectangle there are three horizontal guide lines, the topmost is the level for UPRIGHT (Vertically oriented) letters. The lowermost rule is the BASELINE. Every character should sit on this rule. So, the middle rule is the height guide for the HORIZONTAL (Low profile) letters. Most letters of the Sinhalese alphabet lie between the baseline and intermediate rule.

IMPORTANT LINGUISTIC FEATURES (GRAMMAR RULES):

1. Keti Alparaana Kayanna  cannot ocuur independantly. Once it is ligated to another valid consonant, then it can occur anywhere in a word.


SINHALESE WORDS <> DIGITALLY GENERATED TRANSLITERATION = ENGLISH MEANINGS:

 <> K'shara = Water



 <> K'shathiya = Wound



 <> Pak'shaya = Party



 <> Pak'shiya‚ = Bird 350px-Solsort



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This web-based lesson is Copyright 2015 property of it's author Dr. Sisira Ranasinghe, SRILIA.COM and the affiliate websites.

Sinhalese Consonant  Mahaapraana Kayanna  

"Sinhalese Primer   " on-line by Professor Sisira Ranasinghe M.D., F.A.C.P., F.A.S.C.P   


LESSON TWENTY THREE

 Mahaapraana Kayanna  

Mahaapraana Kayanna  is the second Sinhalese consonant.

When no vowel is written with it, like all the consonants, "Mahaapraana Kayanna " is vocalized by means of the first vowel , which though unwritten is pronounced after it, as "kha". It has the sound of English "kh" represented as in "khaki".



How to write this letter:

Practice writing this letter by following the graphic sequence shown below, beginning from the left and finishing the final character form which is illustrated at the right end. The thin red line with arrow tip shows the writing direction and progressive steps to construct the symbol.

GUIDELINES:

Within the yellow rectangle there are three horizontal guide lines, the topmost is the level for UPRIGHT (Vertically oriented) letters. The lowermost rule is the BASELINE. Every character should sit on this rule. So, the middle rule is the height guide for the HORIZONTAL (Low profile) letters. Most letters of the Sinhalese alphabet lie between the baseline and intermediate rule.

IMPORTANT LINGUISTIC FEATURES (GRAMMAR RULES):

1. Mahapraana Kayanna  can occur anywhere in a word.


SINHALESE WORDS <> DIGITALLY GENERATED TRANSLITERATION = ENGLISH MEANINGS:

 <> Khaya = Sky



 <> Kharaya‚ = Ass



 <> Khalitha‚ = Pepper-corn peppervine



 <> Nakhaya = Toe/Finger nail fingernail



 <> San~gkhya‚wa = Number 1334128321Tufwv6



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This web-based lesson is Copyright 2015 property of it's author Dr. Sisira Ranasinghe, SRILIA.COM and the affiliate websites.

Sinhalese Consonant  Alpapraana Gayanna  

"Sinhalese Primer   " on-line by Professor Sisira Ranasinghe M.D., F.A.C.P., F.A.S.C.P   


LESSON TWENTY FOUR

 Alpapraana Gayanna  

Alpapraana Gayanna  is the third Sinhalese consonant.

When no vowel is written with it, like all the consonants, "Alpapraana Gayanna " is vocalized by means of the first vowel , which though unwritten is pronounced after it, as "ga". It has the short sound of English "g" represented as in "gun", "gum" and "gut".



How to write this letter:

Practice writing this letter by following the graphic sequence shown below, beginning from the left and finishing the final character form which is illustrated at the right end. The thin red line with arrow tip shows the writing direction and progressive steps to construct the symbol.

This symbol looks like an English "S" turned 90 degrees couner-clockwise. With a pen or pencil draw in a counter-clockwise direction starting at the 'horizontal height' rule. Make a half circle like a "C" to lie between the 'horizontal height' and 'baseline' rules. The bottom of this semi-circle should sit on the 'baseline'. Continue to stroke the pen from the bottom end of the semi-circle gradually to the right and upwards, stopping between the 'horizontal height' and 'baseline' rules.

Then reverse the direction and make an arc upwards to the right to meet the 'horizontal height' rule. Continue the stroke gradually curving downwards to the right to form a semicircular arc, like a mirrored "C" extending down to the 'baseline' and continue to curve in the same direction and end just above the 'baseline'.

Well done you made the "Alpapraana Gayanna ".

GUIDELINES:

Within the yellow rectangle there are three horizontal guide lines, the topmost is the level for UPRIGHT (Vertically oriented) letters. The lowermost rule is the BASELINE. Every character should sit on this rule. So, the middle rule is the height guide for the HORIZONTAL (Low profile) letters. Most letters of the Sinhalese alphabet lie between the baseline and intermediate rule.

IMPORTANT LINGUISTIC FEATURES (GRAMMAR RULES):

1. Alparaana Gayanna can occur anywhere in a word.


SINHALESE WORDS <> DIGITALLY GENERATED TRANSLITERATION = ENGLISH MEANINGS:

 <> Gaha = Tree tree



 <> Gawaya‚ = Ox



 <> Gama = Village



 <> Gatha = Body



 <> Gadol' = Bricks



 <> Gan~gga‚ = Rivers 220px-Loboc river



 <> Gan~ga = River waterfal1



 <> Gala = Rock



 <> Gal' = Rocks or stones rocks



 <> Gamara‚la = Farmer mammoty



 <> Gara‚dhi = Lattice crooked nature path 915395 s



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This web-based lesson is Copyright 2015 property of it's author Dr. Sisira Ranasinghe, SRILIA.COM and the affiliate websites.

Sinhalese Consonant  Mahaapraana Gayanna  

"Sinhalese Primer   " on-line by Professor Sisira Ranasinghe M.D., F.A.C.P., F.A.S.C.P   


LESSON TWENTY FIVE

 Mahaapraana Gayanna  

Mahaapraana Gayanna  is the fourth Sinhalese consonant.

It is vocalized as "g" in "drag-house", allowing the "h" to coalece. When no vowel is written with it, like all the consonants, "Mahaapraana Gayanna " is vocalized by means of the first vowel , which though unwritten is pronounced after it, as "gha".



How to write this letter:

Practice writing this letter by following the graphic sequence shown below, beginning from the left and finishing the final character form which is illustrated at the right end. The thin red line with arrow tip shows the writing direction and progressive steps to construct the symbol.

GUIDELINES:

Within the yellow rectangle there are three horizontal guide lines, the topmost is the level for UPRIGHT (Vertically oriented) letters. The lowermost rule is the BASELINE. Every character should sit on this rule. So, the middle rule is the height guide for the HORIZONTAL (Low profile) letters. Most letters of the Sinhalese alphabet lie between the baseline and intermediate rule.

IMPORTANT LINGUISTIC FEATURES (GRAMMAR RULES):

1. Mahapraana Gayanna  can occur anywhere in a word.


SINHALESE WORDS <> DIGITALLY GENERATED ENGLISH TRANSLITERATION = ENGLISH MEANINGS

 <> Ghana = Thick



 <> Ghanaya = Cymbal



 <> Ghanakalu = Hail



 <> Ghanasa‚raya = Camphor



 <> Ghan~gta‚raya = Temple Bell bell



 <> San~gghan~g = Monkhood novices



 <> Jaghana = Hip mother child onhip



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This web-based lesson is Copyright 2015 property of it's author Dr. Sisira Ranasinghe, SRILIA.COM and the affiliate websites.

Sinhalese Consonant  Kanthaja Naasikyaya  

"Sinhalese Primer   " on-line by Professor Sisira Ranasinghe M.D., F.A.C.P., F.A.S.C.P   


LESSON TWENTY SIX

 Kanthaja Naasikyaya  

Kanthaja Naasikyaya  is the fifth Sinhalese consonant.

The symbol is vocalized as nasal "ng". There are no words begining with it, but occurs within words.



How to write this letter:

Practice writing this letter by following the graphic sequence shown below, beginning from the left and finishing the final character form which is illustrated at the right end. The thin red line with arrow tip shows the writing direction and progressive steps to construct the symbol.

GUIDELINES:

Within the yellow rectangle there are three horizontal guide lines, the topmost is the level for UPRIGHT (Vertically oriented) letters. The lowermost rule is the BASELINE. Every character should sit on this rule. So, the middle rule is the height guide for the HORIZONTAL (Low profile) letters. Most letters of the Sinhalese alphabet lie between the baseline and intermediate rule.

IMPORTANT LINGUISTIC FEATURES (GRAMMAR RULES):

1. Kanthaja Naasikyaya  can occur inside a word.


SINHALESE WORDS <> DIGITALLY GENERATED ENGLISH TRANSLITERATION = ENGLISH MEANINGS

 <> N~ga = No word



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This web-based lesson is Copyright 2015 property of it's author Dr. Sisira Ranasinghe, SRILIA.COM and the affiliate websites.

Sinhalese Consonant  Sangnghaka Gayanna  

"Sinhalese Primer   " on-line by Professor Sisira Ranasinghe M.D., F.A.C.P., F.A.S.C.P   


LESSON TWENTY SEVEN

 Sangnghaka Gayanna  

Sangnghaka Gayanna  is the sixth Sinhalese consonant.

The symbol is vocalized as nasal "ng". There are no words begining with it, but occurs within words. When no vowel is written with it, like all the consonants, "Sangnghaka Gayanna " is vocalized by means of the first vowel , which though unwritten is pronounced after it, as "ngha".



How to write this letter:

Practice writing this letter by following the graphic sequence shown below, beginning from the left and finishing the final character form which is illustrated at the right end. The thin red line with arrow tip shows the writing direction and progressive steps to construct the symbol.

GUIDELINES:

Within the yellow rectangle there are three horizontal guide lines, the topmost is the level for UPRIGHT (Vertically oriented) letters. The lowermost rule is the BASELINE. Every character should sit on this rule. So, the middle rule is the height guide for the HORIZONTAL (Low profile) letters. Most letters of the Sinhalese alphabet lie between the baseline and intermediate rule.

IMPORTANT LINGUISTIC FEATURES (GRAMMAR RULES):

1. Sanyaka Gayanna  cannot begin a word.

2. Sanyaka Gayanna  can occur in the middle and end of a word.


SINHALESE WORDS <> DIGITALLY GENERATED ENGLISH TRANSLITERATION = ENGLISH MEANINGS

 <> An~ga = Horn or antler horns



 <> Gan~ga = River 220px-Loboc river



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This web-based lesson is Copyright 2015 property of it's author Dr. Sisira Ranasinghe, SRILIA.COM and the affiliate websites.

Sinhalese Consonant  Sangnghaka Naasikyaya  

"Sinhalese Primer   " on-line by Professor Sisira Ranasinghe M.D., F.A.C.P., F.A.S.C.P   


LESSON TWENTY EIGHT

 Sangnghaka Naasikyaya  

Sangnghaka Naasikyaya  is the seventh Sinhalese consonant.

The seventh Sinhalese consonant "" has the sound of English "ng", "ngh". as in "sing" and "ping".

There are no words begining with it, but occurs within words. When no vowel is written with it, like all the consonants, "Sangnghaka Naasikyaya " is vocalized by means of the first vowel , which though unwritten is pronounced after it, as "ngha".



How to write this letter:

Practice writing this letter by following the graphic sequence shown below, beginning from the left and finishing the final character form which is illustrated at the right end. The thin red line with arrow tip shows the writing direction and progressive steps to construct the symbol.

GUIDELINES:

Within the yellow rectangle there are three horizontal guide lines, the topmost is the level for UPRIGHT (Vertically oriented) letters. The lowermost rule is the BASELINE. Every character should sit on this rule. So, the middle rule is the height guide for the HORIZONTAL (Low profile) letters. Most letters of the Sinhalese alphabet lie between the baseline and intermediate rule.

IMPORTANT LINGUISTIC FEATURES (GRAMMAR RULES):

1. Sanyaka Naasikyaya  cannot begin a word.

2. Sanyaka Naasikyaya  can occur in the middle and end of a word.


SINHALESE WORDS <> DIGITALLY GENERATED TRANSLITERATION = ENGLISH MEANINGS:

 

 <> N~ga = No word



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This web-based lesson is Copyright 2015 property of it's author Dr. Sisira Ranasinghe, SRILIA.COM and the affiliate websites.

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